Chatraka-Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris): Medicinal uses, Adverse effects,Research & Pharmacology

 

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Mushroom Agaricus campestris is mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of fatigue, low sperm count. improving the sperm count. It is a good source of proteins, Vitamin B, K, C and D. 

Latin name- Agaricus campestris Linn.
Family- Agaricaceae
Synonyms: Psalliota campestris

Classical categorization:


Charaka Samhita –  Shaka varga

Bhela Samhita – Shaka varg
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Shaka varga, Samsvedaja Shaka
Adarsha Nighantu – Bhuchhatrakadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu – Aushada varga
Madana Pala Nighantu – Shaka varga
Dravya Guna Vijnaana – Samsvedaja Shaka varga
Raja Nighantu – Shalmalyadi Varga

 

Synonym:


Bhumi sphota, Prithvi sphota- Emerges from the earth

Shilindra- Emerges from the stones
Kutumbaka – appears in bunches
Bhumi chatra, Bhu Chatra- Umbrella shaped structure emerging from earth
Sarpa Chatra, Bhumi kanda, Malatruna, Sumali, Bhukanda, Prithvi kanda, Rohisha,

Reference of Mushroom in Ayurveda:


Bhela Samhitha Sutrasthana 28th chapter under shaka varga 24-26th shloka. Here he has mentioned about different types like palala jata Chatraka , venu Chhatraka, gomaya chhatraka  and their respective gunas also mentioned.

In Bhela Samhitha chikitsa sthana 2nd chapter 35th shloka. In jwara chikitsa, chhatraka is mentioned in a formulation called Mahapaishashika ghrata where it is an ingredient.

Types of mushrooms as per Ayurveda:
According to Bhela samhitha:

  • Palala jatha chhatraka
  • Gomaya chhatraka
  • Venu chhatraka

According to Kaiyyadeva nighantu:

  • Krishna chhatraka
  • Sarpa chhatraka
  • Shwetha chhatraka
  • Raktha chhatraka

Some other references: White, Red, Black
Savisha chhatraka – poisonous
Nirvisha chhatraka – non poisonous

Names in different languages:


Hindi name- Khumi, Gucchi, Chhata, Chhatona, Phenchhatar, Sanpakichhatri

English name- Mushroom
Arabic name- Fitar
Assamese name- Kalphula
Bengali name- Chhata, Chhatakuda, Bhuchhati
Gujarathi name- Viladino Topp, Kagdanachhatra,Mindadnivali
Marathi name- Alambi, Alombe, Kalambe, Khumba
Kannada name- Anabe
Tamil name- Naikkodai
Telugu name- Kukkagodugu
Catalan name – Bolet decam,Bolet comu
Chamba name – Moksha,Mopsha
French name – Psalliote champetre
German name – Brachpitz,Champigon
Hausa – Namanangulu, Namankassa
Kashmir name – Manskhel
Konkani name – Kamila
Persian name – Chatrimar
Portuguese name – Cogumelo
Punjabi name – Bleophore
Spanish name – Agarico camperino
Tulu – Lambu, Kallambu

 

 

Morphology of Agaricus campestris:


Chatraka belong to fungus kingdom. It grows wildly all over India near water source or in place of good moisture content in the soil. It is also cultivated for its commercial use and used in many cuisines. Mushroom has a weak mid part and an umbrella shaped top- hence the name Chatraka. Mushrooms are available in many shape and colors like pink, brown, pale white, white, black. Only some varieties are edible and some are poisonous.  

Agaricus campestris medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet)

Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light) Snigdha (Contain moisture), Picchila (Slimy)
Vipaka – Madhura  (Undergoes Sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)
Karma (Actions) –Vatapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated vata and pitta dosha),
Kaphavardaka ( increase kapha dosha)

Part used- Whole fungus
Dosage- According to the requirement

Chemical constituents of Agaricus campestris:
A protein (2.75%) supplement and an excellent source of vitamins of B complex. Vitamins K, C and D are also present. Though all the amino acids are reported to be present, the concentration of tryptophane is particularly low.

Uses of Chatraka:

  • Chatraka is mainly used like vegetable in cuisines all over the world.
  • Chatraka is boiled and is consumed with ghee to improve the sperm count.
  • Mushroom is cut into small pieces and boiled in milk. This boiled milk is consumed in conditions of emaciation of the body and to improve the physical strength.
  • In conditions of hyperacidity, mushroom is taken along with ghee or sugar candy.
  • Little quantity of chatraka is taken with sugar candy in treating dry cough.
  • Mushroom is fried with ghee and consumed to improve the sexual vigor.

 

Description of mushrooms as per Ayurveda:
White variety, clean, with the colour of bamboo, cow are good to eat. They do not increase Doshas, unlike other types of mushrooms.

Other mushrooms are heavy, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, fever and Kapha disorders.

Madhura – sweet
Vrushya – Aphrodisiac, improves sexual strength
Balya – improves strength and immunity
Rooksha – dry
Hima – coolant
Guru – heavy to digest
Durjara – heavy and hard to digest
Bhedana – may cause diarrhea
Tridoshala – can increase all three Doshas

The dwarf variety is astringent, Katu Vipaka (pungent taste conversion after digestion).
Black mushroom is sweet taste and Vipaka,
White musrhoom is guru – heavy to digest
Red mushroom can increase Doshas by small extent

Adverse effects:
Some varieties of mushroom are poisonous and cause loss of sensation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, allergic rashes over the body, swollen lips, cramps of the muscles etc. Hence care should be taken to select the proper variety of mushroom.

 

Research articles related to Agaricus campestris:


Anti- oxidant potential: The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70%) over SFA (30–35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities.

Anti- bacterial study: Antibacterial activity of methanolic and acetone extracts of Agaricus bisporus were determined in-vitro against two pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus following agar well diffusion method using different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%). Methanolic and acetone extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. Methanolic extract showed maximum inhibitory effect against growth of each of the test bacterium.

 

 

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