Synonym Premna arborea Roth.
Family Verbenaceae.
Habitat Throughout India, up to 1,700 m on the hills and in Andaman Island; also grown in gardens.
English Candahar tree, White Teak.
Ayurvedic Gambhaari, Kaashman, Kaashmarya, Sarvatobhadraa, Bhadra, Mahaabhadraa, Sadaabhadraa, Madhuparnikaa, Sriparni, Pitarohini, Hiraa, Bhadraparni, Trishati.
Siddha/Tamil Kattanam, Kumizham
Action Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid dis

Gnetum montanum Markgraf. 291

charges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibiious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark— anticephalalgic. Root and bark— febrifuge.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark and stem in inflammatory diseases and oedema; the fruit in dysuria and haemorrhagic diseases.
The heartwood contains lignans, arborone, 7- oxodihydrogmelinol, paulownin acetate and epieudesmin; metrans-p-methoxycinnamate and transp-hydroxycinnamic acid.
Alcoholic extract of stem bark showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.
Dosage Root, root bark—20—30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)
Gmelina asiatica Linn.
Synonym G.
parvifolia Roxb. Family Verbenaceae.
Habitat South India; planted in gardens in Maharashtra and West Bengal.
English Small Cashmere tree.
Ayurvedic Gambhaari (related species), Gopabhadra, Vikari ni.

Siddha/Tamil Kumizham

Action Root and leaf—demulcent, alterative, blood purifier (used in venereal diseases), anticatarrhal, astringent, antirheumatic.
The plant contains lignans of the furofuran series.

The leaves show antibiotic activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Gnaphalium Iuteo-album Linn.
Family Asteraceae.
Habitat Throughout India, ascending up to 3,350 m in the Himalayas.
English Jersey Cudweed, Cotton Weed, Cat’s Foot, Everlasting Flower.
Folk Bal-raksha.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage