amarogentin and gentiopicroside, together with traces of swertiamarin and sweroside. The roots also contain alkaloids, gentianine and gentioflavine, xanthones, and bitter oligosaccharides, gentiobiose and gentianose.
Amarogentin, gentiopicrin, swertiamarin, sioeroside (iridoid monoterpenes) are toxic constituents.
Gentiana tenella Rottb., synonym Gentianella tenella H. Smith and G. decumbens Linn.f. occur at high altitudes in the Himalayas, and are used as substitutes for gentian. G. tenella is known as Kadu in Kashmir and Titaa in Punjab. The rhizome is used as Traayamaana in Ayurvedic medicine.
The flowering tops of G.
olivieri Griseb., synonym G. dahurica Fisch., used in Unani medicine as Gul-eGhaafis, are imported into India from Persia.
Dosage Root—l—3 g powder. (CCRAS.)
Geophila repens
(Linn.) I. M. Johnson.
Synonym G. remformis D. Don. Family Rubiaceae.
Habitat Assam, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.
Folk Karintakaali (Kerala).
Action Properties are similar
(though inferior) to those of Ipeac
(Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich.).

Geum urbanum auct. non Linn. 285

Geranium nepalense Sweet.
Synonym G. affine W. & A.
Habitat Temperate Himalayas, Kashmir, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris.
English Nepal Geranium, Nepalese Crane’s Bill.
Ayurvedic Bhanda, Bhandaa.
Folk Ratanjot (var.), Roel (Kashmir).
Action Astringent, styptic, used in renal diseases, diarrhoea, internal and external bleeding. Also used topically for ulcers and haemorrhoids.
The plant gave geraniin, kaempferol7-rhamnoside and kaempferitrin. The leaves gave tannins.
EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited hypotensive activity.
A gastrointestinal-contracting choline-like substance has been isolated from var.
thumbergii and is found useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroptosis.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage