The chloroform soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of aerial parts exhibited promising hepatoprotective activity in albino rats.
The plant contains lupeol, stigmasterol and hydrocarbons.
Dosage Seed𦠮 g powder; ash𥹓 g. (CCRAS.)
Hymenodictyon excelsum Wall.
Synonym H. orixense (Roxb)
Family Rubiaceae.
Habitat Central India and Western Peninsula.
Ayurvedic Bhramar-chhalikaa, Ugragandhaa (a confusing synonym). Bhringa-vrksha (provisional synonym).
Siddha/Tamil Sagappu, Vellei
Kadambu, Peranjoli.

Folk Bhaulan, Bhramarchhali, Bhuurkunda.
Action Bark梐stringent, febrifuge, antiperiodic (especially for tertian ague).
The stem bark contains scopoletin and its apioglucoside, hymexelsin (yield 0.12%). The presence of glucose, fructose, galactose and several amino acids, alanine, arginine, cystine, glycine, leucine; besides fatty acids, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported from the bark.
Roots contain several quinones.

Hyoscyamus muticus Linn.

Family Solanaceae.

Habitat North-western Himalayas. Cultivated on limited scale in North Indian plains.
English Egyptian Henbane.
Ayurvedic Paarsika-yavaani (related species), Turushkaa.
Unani Ajwaayin Khuraasaani, Shuukraan, Tukhm-bang.
Folk Vajra-bhang.
Action Sedative.
The leaves and flowering tops contain higher concentration of tropane alkaloids than other species of Hyoscyamus, used as a source of hyoscine.
Hyoscyamus niger Linn.

Family Solanaceae.

Hypericum perforatum Linn. 319

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb抯 Identification and Usage