oligomeric juglones. Unripe fruit husk also gave napthoquinones.
The kernels of Indian walnuts contain 15.6% protein, 11% carbohydrates, 1.8% mineral matter (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, phosphorus, sulphur and chorine). Iodine (2.8 mcg!100 g), arsenic, zinc, cobalt and manganese are also reported. Kernels are also rich in vitamins of the B group, vitamin A (30 IU!100 g), and ascorbic acid (3 mg!100 g).
The juice of unripe fruits showed significant thyroid hormone enhancing activity (prolonged use of such extract may cause serious side effect).
White Walnut, Lemon Walnut, Butternut, Oilnut of the USA is equated with
Juglans cineraria L. The inner bark gave napthoquinones, including juglone, juglandin, juglandic acid, tannins and an essential oil.
Butternut is used as a dermatological and antihaemorrhoidal agent. Juglone exhibits antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antineoplastic activities.
Dosage Dried cotyledons—10—25 g
(API, Vol. II.)
Juncus effusus Linn.
I. communis E. Mey.
Family Juncaceae.
Habitat Eastern Himalayas and Khasi Hills.

English Rush, Matting Rush.

348 Juniperus communis Linn. var. saxatillis Palias.

Action Pith—antilithic, discutient, diuretic, depurative, pectoral. Root—diuretic, especially in strangury.
The leaves gave flavonoids, lutcoline7-glucoside, diosmin and hesperidin; aerial parts gave phenolic constituents, effusol and juncusol. Juncusol is antimicrobial. A dihydrodibenzoxepin, isolated from the plant, showed cytotoxic activity.
Juniperus communis Linn. var.
saxatillis Palias.
I. communis auct. non L.
Family Pinaceae; Cupressaceae.
Habitat Native to Europe and North America. Distributed in Western Himalayas from Kumaon westwards at 1,700—4,200 m.
English Common Juniper.
Ayurvedic Hapushaa, Havushaa, Haauber, Matsyagandha.
Unani Abahal, Haauber, Hubb-uIarar, Aarar.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage