All parts gave phenolic acids (ellagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); flavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).
Dosage Dried seed𥹒 g powder
(API, Vol. I); stem bark𦠮 g
powder, 2550 g for decoction.
(API, Vol. III.)

Man ihot esculenta Crantz.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat Native to Brazil. Major crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
English Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava.
Siddha/Tamil Maravalli kizhangu, Ezhalai kizhangu.
Folk Tapioca.
Action Staple food for poorer section of the population in many tropical countries. The starch is used for the manufacture of dextose, liquid glucose. The bitter variety is used for treating scabies and weeping skin.
The tuber is a good source of pro- vitamin A carotenoids. It contains

0.13.0 mg/kg (fresh weight) of beta- carotene and 0.0500.6 mg/kg (fresh weight) of lutein. The bitterness of the tuber is related to the cyanoglucoside content which ranges from 320 to 1,100 mcg cyanide/g in very bitter tubers and from 27.5 to 77.5 mcg is non-bitter tubers. Boiling, crushing and sun-drying reduce bitterness and also cyanoglucoside content. The tannin equivalent content in the clones varies from 0.31 to 0.34% and saponin equivalent varies from 0.18 to 0.29%.
Feeding tapioca significantly reduced the plasma cholesterol profile experimentally in cats and rats.
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard. Synonym Minusops Kauki L. Family Sapotaceae.
Habitat A native of Malaya; occasionally grown in gardens, especially in North India, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

English Kauki.

Ayurvedic Khirni.

Siddha Palai.

Action Root and bark梐stringent. Given in infantile diarrhoea. Seed febrifuge, anthelmintic, antileprotic. Leaf梪sed as poultice for tumours.
Seeds contain about 16% of fatty oil and 1% saponin.
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, synonym Mimusops hexandra Roxb., found in central India and

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb抯 Identification and Usage