E.) Like cajeput oil, the principal constituent is cineole (eucalyptol).
A related species,
M. genistfolia, indigenous to Australia, is grown in botanical gardens at Saharanpur and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). The leaves and terminal twigs yield 0.53% of a volatile oil which consists mainly of d-pinene, and about 2% cineole and traces of aldehyde.
Melastoma malabathricum
Linn.
Synonym M. normale D. Don. Family Melastomataceae.
Habitat Moist parts of India, up to 1,800 m.
English Indian Rhododendron.
Folk Laakheri, Paalorey (Maharashtra). Tulasi (Nepal). Nakkukappan (Tamil Nadu), Phutuka (Assam).
Action Leaf—antidiarrhoeal, antiseptic. Locally applied in smallpox to prevent pox-marks.
Leaf and flowering top—astringent, antileucorrhoeic. Bark—applied
to wounds. Also employed in
preparation of gargles.
The leaves gave amino acids—glycine, valine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine, tyrosine, isoleucine and hydroxyproline. The roots gave beta-sitosterol and a tnterpene, melastomic acid.

Habitat Cultivated and naturalized throuhout India. Wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract up to 1,800 m.
English Persian Lilac, Pride of India.
Ayurvedic Mahaanimba, Ramyaka, Dreka. (Neem is equated with
Azadirachta indica.)

Unani Bakaayan.

Siddha/Tamil Malaivembu.

Action Leaf—diuretic, anthelmintic, antilithic. Leaf and flower—febrifuge, sedative, emmenagogue. Leaf, fruit and stem bark—antileprotic. Leaf, flower, fruit, root bark—deobstruent, resolvent. Seed oil—antirheumatic, insecticidal. Leaves, bark and fruit—insect repellent. Gum— used in spleen enlargement. Heart- wood—an aqueous extract, used in asthma.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the dried stem bark in increased frequency and turbidity of urine, skin diseases, nausea, emesis, asthma, gastroenteritis, giddiness and vertigo.
The bitter constituents are present exclusively in the pericarp, not in the kernel as in the case of Neem fruit. Bakayanin has been isolated from the pericarp (bitter in dilutions of 1 in
10,000).
The heartwood also yielded bakayanm and a lactone, bakalactone. Leaves gave quercitrin and rutin and

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage