flavones, flavonol glycosides and caf- Family Gramineae; Poaceae.
feic acid derivatives. Rosmarinic acid Habitat Cultivated all over India as
and 2,3-dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid (67% a food crop.
of total phenolics, 94.5% in hot wa te
extract) were major compounds of English Rice.
caffeic acid derivatives. Ayurvedic Shaali, Vrihidhaanya,
The leaves also contain a high per- Tandula, Nivara.
centage (0.7—00.8) of potassium salts.
Unani Biranj Saathi.
Presence of orthosiphonin and potassium
salts help in keeping uric acid and Siddha/Tamil Nell.
Osmanthus fragrans Lour. 455
Action Rice-water (a water decoction of rice)—demulcent and refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory diseases and in dysuria. Also used as a vehicle for compound preparations used for gynaecological disorders. It is regarded as cooling in haematemesis and epistaxis, and as diuretic.
The green clum or stalks—recommended in biliousness. Ash of the straw—used in the treatment of wounds and discharges. Lixiviated ash of straw is used as anthelmintic and in nausea.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the dried root in dysuria and lactic disorders.
The pigments occurring in coloured types of rice are a mixture of monoglycosides of cyanidin and deiphinidin. The dark Puttu Rice of India contains a diglycosidic anthocyanin.
Dosage Root—50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. II.)
Osbeckia chinensis Linn.
Habitat The Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan, North Bengal, Bihar and Khasi, Aka and Lushai
Folk Bhui-lukham (Lushai).
Action Plant—anodyne, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory.
The plant contains the flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol and hydrolysable tannins, besides gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid.
The flavonoids and tannins showed antioxidant activity. Ellagic acid suppressed increase in lipid peroxidation induced by CC14 and Cobalt-60 irradiation and this effect was more than that of alpha-tocopherol. Gallic acid showed anti-inflammatory activity against zymosan-induced acute footpad