Synonym 0. esculentum R. Br. Sarcostemma secamone (Linn.) Bennet.
Family
Asclepiadaceae.
Habitat Throughout the plains and lower hills of India, including paddy fields and hedges rear semi-marshy places.
Ayurvedic Dugdhikaa, Duudhilataa, Duudhialataa.

Folk Usipallai (Tamil Nadu); Dugdhani (Maharashtra); Jaladudhi (Gujarat).
Action Herb—antiseptic, depurative, galactogogue; decoction used as a gargle in stomatitis and sore throat. Latex—vulnerary. Fresh root—prescribed in jaundice.
A pregnane ester oligoglycoside (oxysine), a pregnane triglycoside (esculentin), a cardenolide (oxyline), two more cardenolides, oxystelmoside and oxystelmine, have been isolated from the roots.

Family Rubiaceae.
Habitat Central and Eastern Himlayas extending to Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
Ayurvedic Talanili, Gandhaprasaarini. (Prasaarini is also equated with Raaja-balaa, Sida veronicaefolia.).
Siddha/Tamil Talanili, Mudiyar Kundal.
Folk Gandhabhaaduli (Bengali).
Action Leaf—carminative, anti- inflammatory, astringent, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antilithic. Root— anti-inflammatory. Used for rheumatic affections, piles, inflammations of the liver, spleen and chest.
Aerial parts contain epi-friedelanol, embelin and beta-sitosterol. Leaves and stems gave iridoid glycosides, si tosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, ursolic acid, hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, ceryl alcohol, palmitic acid and methyl mercaptan. The foetid smell is due to methyl mercaptan.
All parts of the plant have been employed for rheumatic affections.
A related species,
Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merill, synonym P tomentosa Blume, is known as Gandha Prasaarini. The iridoid glucosides, paederoside, paederosidic acid and scandosides have been isolated from the plant.

Dosage Plant—10—20 ml juice; 50100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)
Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Royle.
Family Paeoniaceae.
Habitat Northwestern Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,000— 3,000 m.
English Himalayan Paeony.
Unani Ood Saleeb, Ood Gharqi, Phaavaaniaa.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage