Action Opium is obsolete as a drug. Narcotic, sedative, hypnotic, analgesic, sudorific, anodyne, antispasmodic. Crushed poppyheads were in use as a topical poultice for crippling pain in terminal diseases.
Poppy seed—nutritive, demulcent, emollient, spasmolytic, devoid of narcotic properties. Specific against obstinate constipation, also used in catarrh of the bladder. Poppy

Paris polyphylla Sm. 463

seed oil is also free from narcotic properties. Used against diarrhoea, dysentery and scalds.
Opium contains isoquinoline alkaloids; the major one is morphine with narcotine, codeine, papaverine and thebaine. Poppy seeds, used in Indian medicine, do not contain alkabids. The seeds contain thiamine 420, riboflavin 49, folic acid 30, pantothenic acid 2667 and niacin 1877 mcg!100 g. The seed oil (from Turkey) contains gamma-tocopherol 220, alpha-tocopherol 40 and beta-tocopherol 20 mcg! 100 g. Some low-molecular proteins (15% of total protein) have been isolated, along with cysteine, glutamic acid and arginine. The seeds yield a fatty oil (45%) containing palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids.
The extract of seeds showed highly significant antisecretory (antidiarrhoeal activity) against
E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretory responses in experimental animals.
The triglycerides isolated from seeds showed anti-tumour activity against
Ehrlich’s ascites in mice.
The aqueous extract of seeds showed marked hypoglycaemic activity when administered to glucose-loaded and alboxan diabetic rats.
The seeds were found to increase the activity of carcinogen detoxifying enzyme, glutathione- 5-transferase by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus in mice.
Papaver sp. are found in
P argemone Linn. (indigenous to the Mediterranean region; commonly grown in gardens in India) contains

0.15% of aLkaloids including rhoeadine, protopine, and anthocyanins. Petals are sudorific.
P dubium Linn. (North-western Himalaya form Kashmir to Garhwal; as a winter weed in North Indian plains) contains rhoeagenine as the principal alkaloid, besides rhoeadine, protopine. Petals contain cyanidin B and pelargonidin C. Petals are sudorific.
P hybridum Linn. (gardens of Pun- jab and Uttar Pradesh) is diaphoretic (petals). Plant latex contains alkaloids including berberine, coptisine, pahybrine, papaverrubines A, B, D and E and sanguinarine. Plant also gave glaucine and glucamine.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage