The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (—)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenm, 7—hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5 -deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone marsupsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.
The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25—80%).
The (—)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.
Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its flavonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDLcholesterol.
The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant
in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria and some strains of fungi.


Pterospermum acerifolium Wilid.


Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value ofkino is due to Kino tannic acid.
Dosage Heartwood—50—lOO g
for decoction.
(API, Vol. I); stem bark—32—50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).
Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f.
Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.
Habitat Found in Cuddaph district of Andhra Pradesh, neighbouring areas of Tamfi Nadu and Karnataka.
English Red Sandalwood, Red Sanders.
Ayurvedic Raktachandana, Raktasaara.
Unani Sandal Surkh.
Siddha/Tamil Shivappu chandanam.
Folk Laal-chandan.
Action Heartwood—antibiious, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge.
A paste of wood is used externally for inflammations and headache. Fruit—antidysenteric
The heartwood contains terpenoids—eudesmol, iso-pterocarpolone, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol,

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

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