Buckthorn. R. purpurea is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal.
Dried bark of
Rhamnus frangula L. (Alder Buckthorn) and dried ripe berries of Ramnus catharticus are also used against constipation. (German Commission E, WHO.)
Long term use or excessive amounts may cause albuminuria, haematuria, slowing of intestinal transit and cardiac irregularities. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Rhamnus triquetra Brandis (known as Gudlei, Fagoraa, Gardhan in Pun- jab; Gaunt in Garhwal and Kumaon and Katheraa in Jaunsar) is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal. The bark is used as a tonic, astringent and deobstruent. Kaempferol, its 7-0- methyl ether and 4’-O-methyl ether, physcion-8 beta-D-glucoside, emodin and its 8 beta-D-glucoside were isolated from the whole plant. Emodin exhibited CNS depressant activity. (Fitoterapia, 65, 1994.) The plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and a nonspecific antispasmodic activity. It induced cardio-stimulation which might be due to the endogenous release of catecholamines.
Rhamnus napalensis Wall. ex M. Laws. (known as Archal in Nepal; Biringa and Birringguli in Assam) is found in eastern Himalayas and the hills and plains ofAssam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and northern Andhra Pradesh, ascending up to an altitude of 2,000 m. The fruit, pounded and macerated in vinegar, is prescribed for the treatment of herpes.

Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.

Family Rhamnaceae.

Habitat Throughout Himalayas,
Khasi and Jaintia Hills, hifis of
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and the
Nilgiris.
English Indian Buckthorn.
Folk Chhaduaa, Tadru (Punjab), Chadolaa (Garhwal).
Action Ripe fruit—purgative, emetic. Given in the affections of

Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. 543

spleen. (Purgative action not found
in the bark.)
The bark showed only traces of hydroxymethyl anthraquinones and did not exhibit purgative action on experimental animals.
The plant contains the enzyme, rhamnodiastase, capable of hydrolyzing flavonoid glycosides.
Rhamnus wightii Wight & Am.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage