The phenol glycosides reported from the plant include fragilin, glycosmin, grandidentatin, picein, populin, sali cm, salireposide, salicyloyl tremuloidin, triandrin and tremuloidin.
Willow bark consists of the dried bark or twigs of various species of the genus
Salix, including S. purpurea L. and S. daphnoides Vill.
Salicylate concentrations vary greatly
among Salix sp. Salix alba bark is reported to contain 0.49—0.98% salicin; Salixpurpurea bark 3—9%, Salix daphnoides bark 4.9—5.6% and Salixfragilis bark 3.9—10.2%. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Salix nigra Marsh.
Family
Salicaceae.
Habitat Native to America (New York and Pennsylvania).

English Black Willow.

Unani Bed-Siyaah.

Action Astringent, febrifuge, sedative, nervine tonic. Anaphrodisiac (used for reducing sexual activity; in spermatorrhoea). Largely used in the treatment of nocturnal emissions.
The bark contains tannin, about 1% of glucoside salinigrin. Once considered a substitute for potassium bromide, but without a depressant effect.

Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

Family Salicaceae.

Habitat Throughout the greater part of India, along the banks of rivers and streams.
English Indian Willow. Ayurvedic Jalavetasa, Naadeya,
Niketan, Baishi.
Siddha/Tamil Attupalai. Folk Vaanira, Vaalunja. Action Dried leaves—anti-
inflammatory, given in rheumatism,
swellings, piles. Bark—febrifuge.
The bark is reported to contain
6.5% tannin, also salicin A.
Salix vim inalis Linn. (The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim) is known as Basket Willow and the Osier.

Salmalia malabarica (DC) Schott & Endi. 573

The bark contains 8.2%—8.8% tannin and phenol glycosides, fragilin, picein, salicin (0.13%), salicortin, salireposide, triandrin and vimalin. Salicase, and calcium and potassium nitrates are also reported from the bark.
Dosage Bark—59—100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage