Action Root梐ntipyretic, analgesic, spasmolytic, deobstruent, cathartic, anti-inflammatory.
Leaves梔iuretic; used in oedema and dropsy. A decoction of the herb is used as an antidote to alcoholic poison.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the dried root in diseases of the liver and spleen, anaemia and oedema.
Ethanolic extract of the aerial parts exhibited hepatoprotective activity in CC14-induced intoxication in rats. The acetone-insoluble fraction of the extract is responsible for the activity.
The red and white flowers contain an aLkaloid trianthemine, also punaranavine. The plant also gave ecdysterone (0.01 g!kg), a potential chemosterilant; nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid. The plant is rich in phosphorus and iron but poor in calcium.
The high content of oxalate affects the assimilation of calcium. Carotene (2.3 mg!100 g) has also been reported.
Trianthema sp. are used as adulterant of the roots of Boerhavia dffusa.
Dosage Root𦍁 gpowder. (API, Vol. IV.)
Tribulus alatus Delile.
Habitat Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.

English Winged Caltrops.
Ayurvedic Gokshura (related species).
Unani Gokharu-kalaan.
Folk Desi Gokharu, Aakharaa., Hasaka.
Action Fruits梔iuretic, antiinflammatory, emmenagogue. Used for uterine and genitourinary disorders.
Seed梐stringent, diuretic; given to women to ensure fecundity.
The fruit gave sterols梥tigmasterol, campesterol and beta- sitosterol; flavonoids條uteolin, kaempferol-3-gluco- side and rutin; sapogenins梔iosgeni gitogenin and chlorogenin. Root, stems, leaves and seeds contain sapogenins梔iosgenin, gitogenin and chlorogenin; sterols梑eta- sitosterol and stigmasterol.
Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Habitat Throughout India, up to 5,400 m.
English Land-Caltrops, Puncture Vine.
Ayurvedic Gokshura, Gokshuraka, Kshudra (Laghu) Gokharu, Shvadamshtraa, Swaadu-kantaka, Trikanta, Trikantaka. (Larger var. is equated with Pedalium murex Linn. The fruits of both the varieties

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb抯 Identification and Usage