are conical and have four spines, not three as the synonyms denote. Hence, Acanthospermum hispidum DC. and Martynia annua Linn. have

670 Trichodesma indicum R. Br.

been suggested as the source of Trikantaka.)
Unani Khaar-e-Khasak Khurd.
Siddha Sirunenunji, Nerinjil, Nerunjil.
Action Fruits—diuretic, demulcent, anti- inflammatory, anabolic, spasmolytic, muscle relaxant, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic. Used in strangury, calculus affections, urolithiasis, crystalluria, urinary discharges, pruritus-ani, as a tonic in sexual inadequacy; also as a supporting medicine in cough and asthma. Leaf—diuretic, haemostatic. Root—stomachic, diuretic.
In addition to all these applications,
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India attributes cardiotonic properties to the root and fruit.
The plant contains sap onins, which on hydrolysis yield sapogenins—diosgenin, gitogenin, chlorogenin, ruscogenin, 25D-spirosta-3, 5-diene, among others. Flavonoids—rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside
T) and rutinoside, and tribuloside have been isolated from the leaves and fruits. The seeds contain carboline alkaloids— harmane and harmine. Harmol is also reported from the herb.
A saponin (unidentified) is reported effective for treating angina pectons in people with coronary heart disease (406 cases were treated).
(Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)
Diuretic (more than furosemide), proerectile aphrodisiac, hyp otensive, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic (40—

67% in diabetic mice) activities have been confirmed in several experimental studies. (Pub Med, Medline abstracts, 2003.)
Dosage Fruit—3—6 g powder. (CCRAS.)
Trichodesma indicum R. Br.
Family Boraginaceae.
Habitat The greater part of India in the plains.
Ayurvedic Adah-pushpi, Adhomukha, Gandhapushpika, Andhaka.
Siddha/Tamil Kalhudaitumbai.
Folk Andhaahuli.
Action Herb—Diuretic, emollient, febrifuge. Leaf—depurative. Root— anti-inflammatory, astringent, antidysenteric. Pounded and applied to swelling of joints. Flower—sudorific and pectoral.
The seeds gave linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Hexacosane, ethylhexacosanoate,

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage