Family Caprifoliaceae.
Habitat The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of
3,000—4,000 m.

Ayurvedic Tilvaka.
Folk Telam, Timoi (Kumaon), Tilen, Thelkaa (Garhwal).
Bark—astringent; contain 13.1% tannin on dry basis.

Viburnum opulus Linn. var. americanum (Mifi.) Ait.

Family Caprfoliaceae.

Habitat Native to North America. Dried bark imported into India.
English Cranberry Bush, Cramp- bark.
Action Used as a diuretic and as a uterine sedative in functional uterine disorders.
The activity of the bark has been attributed to the presence of uterine relaxants, acting directly on the muscle and not through sympathomimetic action. The muscle relaxants include an essential oil, an amorphous, bitter phenolic glucoside, esculetin and scopoletin.
The bark contains hydroquinones, arbutin, methylarbutin and traces of hydroquinone; coumarins including scopoletin and scopoline; tannins mainly catechins.
The polycondensed tannins produced significant angioprotective effect in rats.
Viburnum prunifolium Linn.

Family Caprfoliaceae.

Vicoa indica DC. 703

Habitat Native to eastern and central USA. (Experimental cultivation in the Nilgiri hills.)
English Black Haw.
Ayurvedic Tilvaka (related species). Action Uterine sedative (used
in the treatment for threatened
miscarriage, under strict medical supervision. Spasmolytic.
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)
Used after childbirth to check
bleeding and pain, also in dysmenorrhoea.
The stem and root bark gave coumarins including scopoletin, aesculetin and scoplin; a biflavone, amentoflavone; triterpenes including oleanolic and ursolic acid and their acetates, caffeic acid derivatives; salicylic acid, salicin, arbutin (traces); tannins (2%).
Coumarin, scopoletin, is a uterine sedative, while salicin is an analgesic.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage