Wrightia tomentosa
Roem. & Schult.
Synonym W arborea (Dennst.) Mabberley.

Family Apocynaceae.

Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult.

Habitat Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Western Peninsula.
Ayurvedic Kutaja (red-flowered). Indrayava (seeds).
Siddha/Tamil Pala.
Action Two varieties—male and female—are mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Mostly, Holarrhena is supposed to be the male and Wrightia the female. In Unani medicine, Inderjao Talkh (bitter) is equated with Holarrhena antidysenterica (Conesse Bark) and Inderjao Shireen (sweet) with Wrightia tinctoria (known as Dyer’s Oleander, Blue Dyeing Roseberry).

Dried bark is used as a substitute for Holarrhena antidysenterica bark. Alkaloid conessine is the active principle of both the barks.
Besides conessine, other alkaloids present in the bark are conessine dihydrate, holarrhine, kurchicine and a very minute quantity of conkurchine. The bark contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin and reducing sugars besides alkaloids.
The isoflavone, wrightiadione, isolated from the stem bark, displayed cytotoxic activity. Two aliphatic compounds, n-tritriacont-16-one and hexaconsan-3, 6-diol-12-oic acid, have also been isolated from the bark.
Wrightia tinctoria and Holarrhena antidysenterica.


Xanthium strumariumLinn.
X. indicum Koenig. ex Roxb.
Family Compositae; Asteraceae.
Habitat Tropical India.
English Cocklebur, Burweed.
Ayurvedic Shankheshwara, Arishta, Aartagala.
Siddha/Tamil Maruloomatham, Marlumutta.
Folk Bana-okraa.
Action Plant—used for leucoderma, ulcers, abscesses, strumous and
malignant diseases.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage