rats. In folk medicine, leaves are used internally for expelling kidney stone (the herb is also known as Paashaanbhedi).
Homoeopathic medicine, prepared from fresh leaves, is used in the affections of urinary organs, especially in difficult urination or in burning pains during and after urination.
The aerial parts from Pakistan yield an essential oil (0.1%) which contains thymol (79.6%); whereas in Fijian sample of leaves carvacrol and camphor are major constituents. Leaves contain a large amount of oxalacetic acid, flavonoid, cirsimaritin and betasitosterol.
Dosage Leaf𧈁0 ml juice. (CCRAS.)
Coleus barbatus Benth.
C. forskohlii Briq. Plectranthus barbatus Andr.
Family Lamiaceae.
Habitat The sub-tropical Himalayas of Kumaon and Nepal; cultivated in Andhra Pradesh.
Ayurvedic Gandira (Achyranthes aquatica Br. is also equated with Gandira). (Doubtful synonym.)
Folk Garmar (Gujarat), Gurmal.
Action Root and leaf梥pasmolytic, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic.
In experimental amoebiasis of rats, the root powder and ethanolic extract

Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott. 167

showed amoebicidal activity against Entamoeba histolytica.
An alcoholic extract of the roots and essential oil from it, were found to inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the mouse and rat.
The plant produces the labdane diterpenoid, forskolin in its tuberous roots.
Forskolin was discovered during a screening of medicinal plants by Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, in 1974.
(Planta MediCa, 1985, 51, 473477.) The screening revealed the presence of a hypotensive and spasmolytic principle, named coleonol (later the name was changed to forskolin). The basic mechanism of forskolin is the activation of an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which increases the amount of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells. Raised intracellular cAMP level exhibits following physiological effects
inhibition of platelet activation and degranulation; inhibition of mast cell degranualation and histamine release; relaxation of the arteries and other smooth muscles; increased insulin secretion; increased thyroid function; increased lipolysis.
Forskolin, in clinical studies, reduced intraocular pressure when it was applied to the eyes for treating glaucoma. It has been shown to be a direct cerebral vasodilator. It has also been studied as a possible

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb抯 Identification and Usage