asthma, catarrhal fevers, dysuria), anthelmintic, antivermin, maggoticide, antifungal.
The rhizomes contain sap onins— dioscin, gracfflin and beta- sitosterolbeta-D-glucoside. The alkaloids show papaverine-like smooth-muscle-relaxant activity, cardiotonic activity like that of digitalis and antispasmodic,

CNS-depressant, diuretic and hydrocholeretic activities. Saponins show significant anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity
The seeds also contain saponins and exhibit potent and sustained hypotensive and bradycardiac activities in dogs with low toxicity and without any haemolytic activity; also weak spasmolytic activity on isolated guinea-pig ileum.
All parts of the plant yield steroidal sapogenin, diogenin (quantity varies from 0.32 to
4%).
(Not to be confused with Kushtha of Indian medicine, Saussurea lappa.)

Crataegus crenulata Roxb.

Family Rosaceae.

Habitat The Himalayas from Sutluj to Bhutan at altitudes of 800— 2,500 m.
Folk Ghingaaru.
Action See Cratageus oxyacantha.
Crataegeus oxyacantha Linn. Family Rosaceae.
Habitat British and European hedge plant, met with in the temperate Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1,800—3,000 m. (The plant does not thrive in the plains of India.)
English English Hawthorn.
Folk Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak, Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).

Cressa cretica Linn. 177

Action Coronary vasodilator
(strengthens heart muscle without increasing the beat in coronary
arteries), antispasmodic, antihypertensive, sedative to nervous system, diuretic.
Key application In cases of
cardiac insufficiency Stage II as
defined by NYHA (New York Heart Association). An improvement of subjective findings as well as an
increase in cardiac work tolerance, a decrease in pressure/heart rate
product, an increase in the ejection fraction and a rise in the anaerobic threshold have been established in human pharmacological studies.
(German Commission E, WHO.)

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage