for dyspepsia, bilious vomiting, cold, fever, hiccough. Root— anthelmintic. Flowers and buds— astringent.
The peel contains coumarins, limettin, scoparone, scopoletin and umbelliferon; besides nobiletin, limonin,

diosmin, beta-sitosterol and beta-Dglucoside. The roots contain campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cholesterol.
Aqueous extract of the peel showed hypotensive action in dogs.
The fruits and seeds are a cardiotonic; found useful in palpitation.
Dosage Fruit—10—20 ml juice.
(API Vol. III.) Leaf, flower, fruit, root— 50—100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)

Citrus paradisi Macf.

Family Rutaceae.

Habitat Native to the West Indies. Commercialized in the USA. Cultivated mainly in Punjab.
English Grapefruit, ‘Marsh’ Grapefruit.
Folk b’ Chakotraa. Chima Bombilimaas (Tamil Nadu).
Action Young leaves—decoction is used to relieve cold or headache. Fruit—used for developing resistance against colds and influenza.
Grapefruit is rich in vitamins, mm erals, potassium and pectin, which balance the acid reaction in the stomach and stimulate appetite. Half grapefruit contains vitamin A 318 IU, vitamin C 46.8 mg, niacin 0.2 mg, potassium 158 mg. The fruit contains betacarotene and cartenoid lycopene. Lycopene is especially noted for reducing the risk of prostate cancer. The fruit juice contains furanocoumarins, including bergamottin, also naringin, naringenin, limonin, quercetin, kaempferol and obacunone.

Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. 157

For drug interactions with grapefruit juice, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.
Grapefruit is not to be confused with grape (
Vitis vinifera).

Clausena pentaphylla
(Roxb.) DC.

Family Rutaceae.

Habitat The sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal to Sikkim; also in Chakrata range.
Folk Ratanjot (var.), Rowana. Surasi is a doubtful synonym.
Action Bark—anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic; used in veterinary
medicine for wounds and sprains.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage