Action Whole plant—used for diseases of the spleen and for checking haemorrhage.
The grains are rich in carbohydrates (3.474 wt %) and trace elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Sn). The total protein content is 4.2 wt% and the total lipids 4.46%. A hormone, oestrogen, is reported from the lipid.
A polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm and composed of glucose was identified as a phytoglycogen.
Echinochloa frumentacea Link.
Synonym Panicumfrumentaceum Roxb.
Family Gram ineae; Poaceae.
Habitat Cultivated mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
English Japanese Barnyard Millet.
Ayurvedic Shyaamaaka.
Siddha Kudrraivali pillu (Tamil).
Folk Shamaa, Saanvaa.
Action Plant—cooling and
digestible, considered useful in
biliousness and constipation.
The millet has a well balanced amino acid composition, but is deficient in

lysine. Glutelin is the major constituent of protein.
Echinops echinatus Roxb.
Family
Compositae; Asteraceae.
Habitat Throughout India.
English Globe-Thistle, Camel’s Thistle.
Ayurvedic Utkantaka, Uttundaka, Brahmadandi.
Folk Uunta-Kateraa.
Action Alterative, diuretic, nerve tonic (used in hoarse cough,
dyspepsia, scrofula, hysteria.)
Aerial parts of the plant contain alkaloids, echinopsine, echinopsidine and echinozolinone. Taraxasterol acetate, isolated from the plant, is a potent anti-inflammatory constituent; the ethanolic extract of the whole plant is more effective when administered parenterally than orally. Apigenin and its derivatives, echinacin and echinaticin show antifungal activity.
Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.

Encyclopedia of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

A Candle of Medicinal Herb’s Identification and Usage