Clostridium botulinum


Clostridium botulinum



Scientific classification

Domain:            Bacteria

Division:           Firmicutes

Class:   Clostridia

Order:  Clostridiales

Family: Clostridiaceae

Genus:  Clostridium

Species:            C. botulinum.


            Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism.It is included in the genus Clostridium, a major group of Gram-positive forms. C. botulinum was first recognized and isolated in 1896 by Emile van Ermengem and is commonly found in soil.

These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low-oxygen conditions. They form spores that allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth.

          Botulin toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is often believed to be a potential bioweapon as it is so potent that it takes less than 1 microgram to kill a person, a drop could kill 100,000 people, and 1 pound of it can kill the entire human population, though contact is uncommon.[citation needed]

         Clostridium botulinum is a soil bacterium. The spores can survive in most environments and are very hard to kill. They can survive the temperature of boiling water at sea level, thus many foods are canned with a pressurized boil that achieves an even higher temperature, sufficient to kill the spores.


            Growth of the bacterium can be prevented by high acidity, high ratio of dissolved sugar, high levels of oxygen, or very low levels of moisture. For example in a low acid, canned vegetable such as green beans that are not heated hot enough to kill the spores (ie. a pressurized environment) may provide an oxygen free medium for the spores to grow and produce the toxin. On the other hand, tomatoes or tomato sauce are sufficiently acidic to prevent growth; even if the spores are present, they pose no danger to the consumer. Honey, corn syrup, and other sweeteners may contain spores but the spores cannot grow in a highly concentrated sugar solution; however, when a sweetener is diluted in the low oxygen, low acid digestive system of an infant, the spores can grow and produce toxin. As soon as infants begin eating solid food, the digestive juices become too acidic for the bacterium to grow.


Kumkum / safron - Crocus sativus

 Medicinal Plant / herbs

Crocuses belong to the family Iridaceae. The saffron crocus is classified as Crocus sativus, It is a shrub. Leaves are seen towards the base of the stem and are compactly arranged.Read More about safron.....