Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Mycobacterium tuberculosis



Kingdom:         Bacteria

Phylum:            Actinobacteria

Order:  Actinomycetales

Suborder:         Corynebacterineae

Family: Mycobacteriaceae

Genus:  Mycobacterium

Species:            M. tuberculosis


        Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis.. It was first described on March 24, 1882 by Robert Koch, who subsequently received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for this discovery in 1905; the bacterium is also known as Koch's bacillus. The M. tuberculosis genome was sequenced in 1998.



           M. tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe ( weakly Gram-positive mycobacterium, hence Z.N. staining is used). While mycobacteria do not seem to fit the Gram-positive category from an empirical standpoint (i.e. they do not retain the crystal violet stain), they are classified as an acid-fast Gram positive bacterium due to their lack of an outer cell membrane. M. tuberculosis divides every 15 to 20 hours—extremely slowly compared to other bacteria, which tend to have division times measured in minutes (for example, E. coli can divide roughly every 20 minutes). It is a small, rod-like bacillus that can withstand weak disinfectants and can survive in a dry state for weeks.




              M. tuberculosis is identified microscopically by its staining characteristics: it retains certain stains after being treated with acidic solution, and is thus classified as an "acid-fast bacillus" (AFB). In the most common staining technique, the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, AFB are stained a bright red, which stands out clearly against a blue background; therefore, the bacteria are sometimes called red snappers. Acid-fast bacilli can also be visualized by fluorescent microscopy, and by auramine-rhodamine stain. The reason for the acid-fast staining is because of its thick waxy cell wall. The waxy quality of the cell wall is mainly due to the presence of mycolic acids


Kumkum / safron - Crocus sativus

 Medicinal Plant / herbs

Crocuses belong to the family Iridaceae. The saffron crocus is classified as Crocus sativus, It is a shrub. Leaves are seen towards the base of the stem and are compactly arranged.Read More about safron.....