To determine the presence of albumin in a given sample of urine


If the urine is turbid, filter it and if it is alkaline make it slightly acidic to litmus by adding few drops of 3% of acetic acid. Fill 3/4 of testtube and boil the top 1/3 of urine over the spirit lamb. Now turbidity can arise because of phosphates, carbonates or proteins. Add 2 drops of 3% acetic acid. Persistance of development of turbidity implies proteinurea and if the urine becomes clear, no albumin is present. If the cloudiness disappears on adding 3% acetic acid, it is due to phosphates. If the cloudiness appears while the tube is being heated and disappears when it reaches boiling point Bence Jones protein is present.

State whether there is only a faint percentage (+), a cloud precipitate (++), dense cloud (+++) or definite flocculent precipitate (++++) give a rough idea of quantity of protein.

Interpretations of Proteinurea

1. Minimal proteinurea (less than 0.5g/day)

In highly concentrated urine in healthy person, following exercise, fever, severe emotional or thermal senses, polycystic kidney, lower urinary tract infection, hypertension.

2. Moderate proteinurea (0.5 - 3g/ day)

In chronic glomerular nephritis, congestive heart failure, multiple myeloma.

3. Marked proteinurea (more than 3 g/day)

In acute glomerular nephritis, severe chronic glomerular nephritis

Increased protein in urine occurs after taking large protein containing diet, in pregnancy and in premenstrual stage. Alkaline urine can give false +ve test. Drugs that may cause false +ve test for proteins are arsenic, NaHCO3, thymol, gold etc.

Note: The observation can be classified as no change (-ye), a cloud precipitate (++), dense cloud (+++) and flocculent precipitate (++++).









1. In what all conditions are albuminurea present?

2. What is meant by microalbuminurea?

3. What biochemical changes occur in blood in albuminurea?

4. What are other tests for album in






Kumkum / safron - Crocus sativus

 Medicinal Plant / herbs

Crocuses belong to the family Iridaceae. The saffron crocus is classified as Crocus sativus, It is a shrub. Leaves are seen towards the base of the stem and are compactly arranged.Read More about safron.....