Curcuma longa Linn.

Synonym: C. domestica Valeton.



Family _ Zingiberaceae.

Habitat _ Cultivated all over India,

particularly in West Bengal, Tamil

Nadu and Maharashtra.

English _ Turmeric.

Ayurvedic _ Haridraa, Priyaka,

Haridruma, Kshanda, Gauri,

Kaanchani, Krimighna, Varavarnini,

Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini,

Naktaahvaa, Sharvari.

Unani _ Zard Chob.

Siddha/Tamil _ Manjal.



Action _ Anti-inflammatory,

cholagogue, hepatoprotective,

blood-purifier, antioxidant, detoxifier

and regenerator of liver tissue,

antiasthmatic, anti-tumour, anticutaneous,

antiprotozoal, stomachic,

carminative. Reduces high plasma

cholesterol. Antiplatelet activity offers

protection to heart and vessels.

Also protects against DNA damage

in lymphocytes.


Key application _ In dyspeptic

conditions. (German Commission

E, ESCOP, WHO.) As antiinflammatory,

stomachic. (Indian

Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The rhizomes gave curcuminoids,

the mixture known as curcumin, consisting

of atleast four phenolic diarylheptanoids,

including curcumin and

monodesmethoxycurcumin; volatile

oil , containing about

turmerones which are sesquiterpene

ketones, and bitter principles, sugars,

starch, resin.

Curcumin related phenolics possess

antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,

gastroprotective and hepatoprotective

activities. The antioxidant activity of

curcumin is comparable to standard

antioxidants—vitamin C and E, BHA

and BHT.

The volatile oil, also curcumin, exhibited

anti-inflammatory activity in

a variety of experimental models (the

effects were comparable to those of

cortisone and phenylbutazone). Used

orally, curcumin prevents the release

of inflammatory mediators. It depletes

nerve endings of substance P, the neurotransmitter

of pain receptors. Curcumin’s cholesterol-lowering

actions include interfering with intestinal

cholesterol uptake, increasing

the conversion of cholesterol into bile

acids and increasing the excretion of

bile acids via its choleretic effects.

Curcuminoids prevent the increases

in liver enzymes, SGOT and SGPT; this

validates the use of turmeric as a hepatoprotective

drug in liver disorders.

Curlone, obtained from the dried rhizome,

is used against hepatitis.

Turmeric and curcumin increase

the mucin content of the stomach and

exert gastroprotective effects against

stress, alcohol, drug-induced ulcer

formation. (Curcumin at doses of

100 mg/kg weight exhibited ulcerogenic

activity in rats.)

Theethanolic extract of the rhizome

exhibited blood sugar lowering activity

in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Piperine (a constituent of black and

long pepper) enhances absorption and

bioavailability of curcumin.

Dosage _ Cured rhizome—1 to 2 g

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.

medicinal plants